Vascular substitutes with an ability to prevent thrombosis
Researchers at Amirkabir University of Technology have introduced synthetic substitutes for the arteries, which have eliminated the problem of thrombosis using the structure of Nano-polymer materials.
According to Amirkabir University of Technology Public Relations department, Kavoos Razmjouei, the project executive, introduced cardiovascular diseases as one of the leading causes of death worldwide, saying that today, there is a great need for artificial vessels to replace the damaged ones.
He mentioned that to date, various methods and polymers have been studied for the development of artificial vascular substitutes, and added: “Issues like thrombosis have caused obstacles in using such substitutes.”
He announced the execution of a research project entitled “Construction and characterization of polymer nanoparticle substrates for use in artificial arterial substitutes” by electrospinning of polycaprolactone and its correction with oxygen plasma and acrylamide adhesion on the surface, in order to create a suitable bedding for construction of substitutes for vessels which have lost their functional ability for any reason.
The project executive mentioned :” In this research, we have found a polymer nanoparticle bed, whose surface has been modified and the adhesion of blood platelets has been greatly reduced and therefore it can be used as artificial arterial replacement.
He described the construction of a modified nano-fibrous bed with the properties of platelet thrombosis prevention and blood-compatibility as one of the goals of this study and noted: Polycaprolactone polymer was chosen for this purpose because its biocompatibility is confirmed, and its electrospun fibrous structure can have mechanical properties similar to that of a blood vessel.
The researcher described electrospinning as a technology that could produce single and continuous polymeric nano-fibers with relatively long lengths and noted that: Oxygen plasma process was used to correct the surface, because according to the research conducted,it produces the highest density of active groups on the surface. In addition, acrylamide was selected due to its biocompatibility and hydrophilicity and electrical neutrality for transplantation on the surface of polycaprolactone nano-fibers.
He added that for this purpose, the nano-structure was first made of polycaprolactone and its surface was modified and activated by oxygen plasma, and after activating the surface of the polycaprolactone fiber, monomer acrylamide was grafted to the surface to improve the blood compatibility, and finally, by a platelet adhesion test as a blood coagulation test, platelet adhesion on the surface was investigated.
Razmjooie referred to the electrospinning process of polycaprolactone and obtaining an average fiber diameter of about 112 nm , as one the of the complex processes of the study, and added: “Also, the study of platelet adhesion was faced with complications due to the difficulty of blood platelet processing.
He emphasized that the achievements of this research could be applied in the industry and technology of production of vascular substitutes, such as artificial blood vessels and added that for the commercialization of this method and prototype, other blood compatibility tests should be adapted and animal testing should be performed.
The project executive emphasized that the nanofibre bed with an average diameter of 112 nm was achieved, which greatly improves surface properties. At the end of the research, and after the surface modification, a surface was obtained that could significantly reduce platelet adhesion to the surface, which is one of the main cause of the congestion of the substitute vessels.
He described the results of the project as producing a substrate of nano fiber with a fiber diameter of about 112 nm, and a hydrophilic surface that prevents thrombosis for use in artificial vessels, and added that the results of this project can be used to study and construct artificial vessel alternatives like artificial veins.
This project was implemented in collaboration with Dr. Hamid Keshvari and Dr. Said Saber Samandari at Amirkabir University of Technology.